In a study by Smit, E et al. (2012) published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition the correlation between vitamin D levels and the risk of dying in older adults was investigated. This study examined data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included over 4,300 adults over the age of 60. The researchers found that older individuals with low vitamin D levels had a 30% higher chance of dying than those with higher vitamin D levels. The study also found a correlation between increased risk of dying and frailty. Frail adults had twice the risk of dying as those who were not frail and individuals who were both frail and had low vitamin D levels were three times more likely to die.

Smit, E., et al. 2012. The effect of vitamin D and frailty on mortality among non-institutionalized US older adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (June 13) doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.67.